The nonprofit tax form 990 contains interesting questions and requirements that should be reviewed by the board, not just by the financial people. I highly recommend to download and print the full form, even if the nonprofit doesn’t need to file it. You can check out the core pages at https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f990.pdf
Take a look at the 990 page 6- “Part VI Governance, Management and Disclosure “section” and what is asked in this page– it may be an eye-opener for many.
As you can see, this form raises good questions that may be used to improve operations. According to the instructions on the top, saying “yes’ to lines 2 through 7b requires explanations and management should review these items carefully.
Line 2 is about identifying people who may personally benefit from the organization, a possible private inurement situation, usually a no-no for tax-exempt organizations or a hefty excise tax. The take away here — be careful with business relations involving board members.
Line 5 is about the loss of assets, an intriguing item on the tax return. A “significant diversion of assets” according to the IRS is embezzlement, fraud, theft or other inappropriate use of funds that is the lesser of 5% of current annual gross receipts, 5% of total assets at year-end, or $250,000. According to a Washington Post report in 2013, more than 1,000 organizations marked “yes” here and most were for embezzlement. Besides giving details of the problem, it’s a good idea to also disclose any new internal controls used after the problem was disclosed to prevent it from happening again. Note that this is NOT confidential information.
Line 11 specifically asks about top management getting copies of the tax return and how reviews are conducted. The board must be engaged in this process, even if they are not financial people. They cannot say that they don’t know or understand the tax returns.
Line 12 asks about conflicts of interest while line 13 is about whistleblowing, and line 14 covers document retention and destruction policy. These lines underscore the need for written policies, and under the conflict of interest item, the need to monitor those regularly. The idea is to say “yes” to all of these. And the take away for management is to make sure these policies are followed up by procedures to make sure they’re not just “lip service.”
Line 18 reminds organizations to make certain forms available for review, as required by law. Such reminders are all over the tax form, including reminding nonprofits about reporting contractors and gambling winnings. Management could highlight those items and follow up on them with the finance department.
Also, note that the 990 asks for the nonprofit’s mission statement as the first line, and also on Part III- Statement of Program Services Accomplishments. The idea here is to match the mission statement to the programs. If an organization mission is to provide food for the homeless, but programs relate to buying books to schools, the nonprofit may be at risk to lose its tax-exempt status, which can be a major problem.
You can check the new edition of the book Nonprofit Finance A Practical Guide at https://goo.gl/M563u9